The Attack on Pearl Harbor
The road to war between Japan and the United States began in the 1930s when differences over China drove the two nations apart. In 1931, Japan conquered Manchuria, which until then had been part of China. In 1937, Japan began a long and ultimately unsuccessful campaign to conquer the rest of China. In 1940, the Japanese government allied with Nazi Germany in the Axis Alliance and the next year occupied all of Indochina.
The United States, which had important political and economic interests in East Asia, was alarmed by Japan’s moves. The U.S. increased military and financial aid to China, embarked on a program of strengthening its military power in the Pacific and cut off the shipment of oil and other raw materials to Japan.
Because Japan was poor in natural resources, its government viewed these steps, especially the embargo on oil, as a threat to the nation’s survival. Japan’s leaders responded by resolving to seize the resource-rich territories of Southeast Asia, even though that move would certainly result in war with the United States.
The problem with the plan was the danger posed by the U.S. Pacific Fleet based at Pearl Harbor. Adm. Isoroku Yamamoto, commander of the Japanese fleet, devised a plan to immobilize the U.S. fleet at the outset of the war with a surprise attack.
The key elements in Yamamoto’s plans were meticulous preparation, the element of surprise and the use of aircraft carriers and naval aviation on an unprecedented scale. In spring 1941, Japanese carrier pilots began training in the special tactics called for by the Pearl Harbor attack plan.
In October 1941, the naval general staff gave final approval to Yamamoto’s plan, which called for the formation of an attack force commanded by Vice Adm. Chuichi Nagumo. It centered on six heavy aircraft carriers accompanied by 24 supporting vessels. A separate group of submarines was to sink any American warships that escaped the Japanese carrier force.
Nagumo’s fleet assembled in the remote anchorage of Tankan Bay in the Kuril Islands and departed in strictest secrecy for Hawaii Nov. 26, 1941. The ship’s route crossed the North Pacific and avoided normal shipping lanes. At dawn Dec. 7, 1941, the Japanese task force had approached undetected to a point slightly more than 200 miles north of Oahu. At this time the U.S. carriers were not at Pearl Harbor. On Nov. 28, Adm. Husband E. Kimmel had sent USS Enterprise under Rear Adm. William Halsey to deliver Marine Corps fighter planes to Wake Island. On Dec. 4, USS Enterprise delivered the aircraft, and on Dec. 7 the task force was on its way back to Pearl Harbor.
On Dec. 5, Kimmel sent USS Lexington with a task force under Rear Adm. John Newton to deliver 25 scout bombers to Midway Island. The last Pacific carrier, USS Saratoga, had left Pearl Harbor for upkeep and repairs on the West Coast.
At 6 a.m. Dec. 7, the six Japanese carriers launched a first wave of 181 planes composed of torpedo bombers, dive bombers, horizontal bombers and fighters. Even as they winged south, some elements of U.S. forces on Oahu realized there was something different about this Sunday morning.
In the hours before dawn, U.S. Navy vessels spotted an unidentified submarine periscope near the entrance to Pearl Harbor. It was attacked and reported sunk by the destroyer USS Ward. At 7 a.m., an alert operator of an Army radar station at Opana spotted the approaching first wave of the attack force. The officers to whom those reports were relayed did not consider them significant enough to take action. The report of the submarine sinking was handled routinely, and the radar sighting was passed off as an approaching group of American planes due to arrive that morning.
The Japanese aircrews achieved complete surprise when they hit American ships and military installations on Oahu shortly before 8 a.m. They attacked military airfields at the same time they hit the fleet anchored in Pearl Harbor. The Navy air bases at Ford Island and Kaneohe Bay, the Marine airfield at Ewa and the Army Air Corps fields at Bellows, Wheeler and Hickam were all bombed and strafed as other elements of the attacking force began their assaults on the ships moored in Pearl Harbor. The purpose of the simultaneous attacks was to destroy the American planes before they could rise to intercept the Japanese.
Of the more than 90 ships at anchor in Pearl Harbor, the primary targets were the eight battleships anchored there. Seven were moored on Battleship Row along the southeast shore of Ford Island while the USS Pennsylvania lay in dry dock across the channel. Within the first minutes of the attack all the battleships adjacent to Ford Island had taken bomb or torpedo hits. The USS West Virginia sank quickly. The USS Oklahoma “turned turtle” and sank.
At about 8:10 a.m., the USS Arizona was mortally wounded by an armor-piercing bomb that ignited the ship’s forward ammunition magazine. The resulting explosion and fire killed 1,177 crewmen, the greatest loss of life on any ship that day and about half the total number of Americans killed. The USS California, USS Maryland, USS Tennessee and USS Nevada also suffered varying degrees of damage in the first half-hour of the raid.
There was a short lull in the fury of the attack about 8:30 a.m. At that time Nevada, despite its damage, managed to get underway and move down the channel toward the open sea. Before it could clear the harbor, a second wave of 170 Japanese planes, launched 30 minutes after the first, appeared over the harbor. The planes concentrated their attacks on the moving battleship, hoping to sink it in the channel and block the narrow entrance to Pearl Harbor.
On orders from the harbor control tower, crews beached Nevada at Hospital Point and the channel remained clear. When the attack ended shortly before 10 a.m., less than two hours after it began, the American forces had paid a fearful price. Twenty-one ships of the U.S. Pacific Fleet were sunk or damaged: the battleships Arizona, California, Maryland, Nevada, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, Tennessee and West Virginia; cruisers USS Helena, USS Honolulu and USS Raleigh; the destroyers USS Cassin, USS Downes, USS Helm and USS Shaw; seaplane tender USS Curtiss; target ship (ex-battleship) USS Utah; repair ship USS Vestal; minelayer USS Oglala; tug USS Sotoyomo; and Floating Dry-dock No. 2.
Aircraft losses islandwide included 188 destroyed and 159 damaged, the majority hit before they had a chance to take off. American dead numbered 2,403. That figure included almost 70 civilians, most of them killed by improperly fused anti-aircraft shells landing in Honolulu. The wounded included 1,178 military and civilian personnel.
Japanese losses were comparatively light. Twenty-nine planes, less than 10 percent of the attacking force, failed to return to their carriers.
The Japanese success was overwhelming but was incomplete. The attackers failed to damage any American aircraft carriers, all of which, by a stroke of luck, had been absent from the harbor at the time of the attacks. Also undamaged were most of the shoreside facilities at the Pearl Harbor Naval Base, which would play an essential role in the resurrection of the fleet and the outcome of World War II in the Pacific.
The Navy (Ship) Yard at Pearl Harbor helped rescue crew members from damaged ships and repaired all but three of the ships sunk or damaged. Arizona was considered too badly damaged to be salvaged. Oklahoma and Utah were considered too old to be worth the effort. Most significantly, the shock and anger caused by the surprise attack on Pearl Harbor united a divided nation and ensured a wholehearted American commitment to victory in World War II.